Dr. R. Rathinam

Qualification DO, DNB, Ph.D.
Designation Chief, Uvea Services
Principal – Postgraduate Institute of Ophthalmology
Location Aravind Eye Hospital, Madurai

Dr. Rathinam is the Chief of Uveitis Service & Principal of PG Institute ophthalmology.  She graduated in medicine from Madurai University, DO and MNAMS (Ophthalmology) from Aravind Eye Hospital Madurai, Ph.D. from Dr. M.G.R. University and FAMS from National Academy of Medical Sciences, New Delhi.

Her basic, epidemiological and clinical research over 25 years at uveitis clinic, Aravind Eye Care System uncovered the cause, source and pathogenesis for three new unknown outbreaks, which include Ocular Leptospirosis, Trematode eye disease in children and Ocular West Nile virus infection . She received the prestigious Prof. C.S Bhaskaran Oration award and P.Siva Reddy International Award for her Research on novel infectious uveitis etiologies from All India Ophthalmology Society (AIOS) 2014 and from Indian Association of Medical Microbiologists (IAMM). She has made outstanding contributions to ophthalmic literature both in national and international arena. She is an elected member of International Uveitis Study Group (IUSG) since 2001.

Ph.D. guide recognization:
  • The TN Tamil Nadu Dr. MGR Medical University, Chennai (2010)
  • Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai (2011)
  • Alagappa University, Karaikudi (2012)
Ph.D. examiner for the following Universities:
  • Hyderabad central University, Hyderabad
  • Bharathidasan University, Trichy
  • The Tamil Nadu Dr. MGR Medical University, Chennai
  • Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai
Editorial experience:
  • Associate editor – For the Journal, Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
  • Co editor for Uveitis , Wills Eye Color Atlas and Synopsis of Clinic Ophthalmology (Wills Eye Series) Lippincott, USA 2011

Dr. Rathinam has contributed chapters for books published in India, United Kingdom, Germany and the United States of America, Co Editor for Wills eye manual uvea atlas, USA and authored a manual on Ocular Pharmacology.

  1. Rathinam SR,  Gonzales J, Radhika T, Anuradha K, Bala Murugan S, Vedhanayaki R,  Lim L, Suhler EB, Al-Dhibi HA, Doan T, Keenan JD, Rao MM, Ebert CD, Nguyen HH, Kim E, Porco TC, Acharya NR; for the FAST Research Group. Effect of Corticosteroid-Sparing Treatment with Mycophenolate Mofetil vs Methotrexate on Inflammation in Patients with Uveitis: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2019;322:936-945.
  2. Kumar JS, Rathinam S, Karothia D, Parida M. Cloning, expression & evaluation of potential immunogenic recombinant capsid premembrane protein of West Nile virus. Indian J Med Res. 2019;149:656-661.
  3. Rathinam SR, Vedhanayagi, Balagiri S, Priya S. A cross sec­tional assessment of knowledge, atti­tude and practice towards Leptospiro­sis among rural and urban population of a South Indian District. Biomed J Sci & Tech Res. 2019;16:1-14.
  4. Nithya V, Rathinam SR, Siva Ganesa Karthikeyan R, Lalitha Prajna. A ten year study of prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, and genotypic characterization of Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus causing ocular infections in a tertiary eye care hospital in South India. Infect Genet Evol. 2019;69:203–210.
  5. Cunningham ET Jr, Khairallah M, Rathinam SR, Belfort R Jr, Zierhut M. Mosquito-Borne Uveitis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2018;26:651-653.
  6. Kumar JS, Saxena D, Parida M, Rathinam SR. Evaluation of real-time reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for clinical diagnosis of West Nile virus in patients. Indian J Med Res. 2018 Mar;147:293-298.
  7. Rathinam SR, Vijayakumar, B, Gowri Priya, C, Visalakshi, J. Leptospiral Uveitis: usefulness of clinical signs as diagnostic predictors. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2018;26:569-576.
  8. Bhagya S, Lalitha, Prajna, Arya LM, Rathinam SR. Polymerase Chian Reaction and its Correlation with Clinical Features and Treatment Response in Tubercular Uveitis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm.2018;26:845-852.
  9. Rathinam SR. Tubercular Uveitis and Scleritis. Focal Points. 2017:1-15.
  10. Niemeyer KM, Gonzales, J A, Rathinam SR, Manohar Babu, B, Radhika, T, Anuradha, K, Porco, T C, Browne, E N, Rao, M M, Acharya, N R. Quality of Life Outcomes from a Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Antimetabolites for Intermediate, Posterior, and Panuveitis. Am. J. Ophthalmol. 2017;179:10-17.
  11. Browne EN, Rathinam SR, Anuradha, K, Radhika, T, Manohar Babu, B, Lietman, T M, Acharya, N R. A Bayesian Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Antimetabolite Therapies for Non-Infectious Uveitis. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2017;24:63-70.
  12. Nguyen, Q D Merrill, P T, Clark, W L, Banker, A S, Fardeau, C, Franco, P, LeHoang, P, Ohno, S, Rathinam SR, Thurau, S, Abraham, A, Wilson, L, Yang, Y, Shams, N, Sirolimus Study Assessing Double-Masked Uveitis Treatment.Intravitreal Sirolimus for Noninfectious Uveitis: A Phase III Sirolimus Study Assessing Double-Masked Uveitis Treatment (SAKURA). Ophthalmology. 2016;123:2413-2423.
  13. Shen E, Rathinam SR, Manohar Babu, B, Anuradha, K, Radhika, T, Lee, S M, Browne, E N, Porco, T C, Acharya, N R. Outcomes of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Disease: a subanalysis from a randomized clinical trial of antimetabolite therapies. Am. J. Ophthalmol. 2016;168:279-286.
  14. Arya LM, Rathinam SR, Lalitha, Prajna, Usha, Kim R, Sudeep, Ghatani, Tandon, Veena. Trematode Fluke Procerovum Varium as cause of Ocular Inflammation in Children, South India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22:192-200.
  15. Rathinam SR, Rao NA. Anterior Segment Ischemia in Viper Bite. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2016;24:49-54.
  16. Lou SM, Montgomery, P A, Larkin, K L, Winthrop, K, Zierhut, M, Rosenbaum, J T, Rathinam SR, Uveitis Specialists Study Group. Diagnosis and Treatment for Ocular Tuberculosis among Uveitis Specialists: the international perspectie. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2015;23:32-39.
  17. Cunningham, Emmett T, Rathinam SR, Albini, T A, Chee, S-P, Zierhut, M. Tuberculous Uveitis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2015;23:2-6.
  18. Cunningham Jr., Emmett T, Rathinam SR, Tugal-Tutkun, I, Muccioli, C, Zierhut, M. Vogt Koyanagi-Harada Disease. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2014;22:249-252
  19. Rathinam SR Manohar Babu, B, Radhika, T, Kanakath, A, Nardone, N, Esterberg, E, Lee, S M, Enanoria, W T, Porco, T C, Browne, E N, Weinrib, R, Acharya, N R. A Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Methotrexate and Mycophenolate Mofetil for Noninfectious Uveitis. Ophthalmology. 2014;121:1863-70.
  20. Hornbeak DM, Payal, A, Pistilli, M, Biswas, J, Ganesh, S K, Gupta, V, Rathinam SR, Davis, J L, Kempen, J H. Interobserver Agreement in Clinical Grading of Vitreous Haze using Alternative Grading Scales. Ophthalmology. 2014;121:1643-1648.
  21. Umesh CB, Rathinam SR, Lalitha, Prajna, Niraj Agrawal, Renu, P Rajan. Epiretinal Deposits Post Cataract Extraction. Ret Case Brief Rep. 2013;7:359-361.
  22. Saxena D, Kumar, J S, Parida, M, Rathinam SR, Patro, I K. Development and Evaluation of NS1 Specific Monoclonal Antibody Based Antigen Capture ELISA and its Implications in Clinical Diagnosis of West Nile Virus Infection. J Clin Virol. 2013;58:528-534.
  23. Rathinam SR, Lalitha, Prajna, Arya LM, Praveen Muraly, Shukla, Jyoti, Saxena, Divyasha, Parida, Manmohan. Molecular Diagnosis and Ocular Imaging of West Nile Virus Retinitis and Neuroretinitis. Ophthalmology. 2013;120:1820-1826.
  24. Kamath YS, Rathinam SR, Ankush Kawali. Ocular Toxoplasmis Associated with Scleritis. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2013;61:295-297.
  25. Rathinam SR, Manohar Babu, B. Algorithmic Approach in the Diagnosis of Uveitis. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2013;61:255-262.
  26. Arun Kannan , Gowri Priya, C, Lalitha, Prajna, Rathinam SR. Efficiency of Two Commercial Kits in Serodiagnosis of Leptospiral Uveitis. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2012;30:418-422.
  27. Rathinam SR, Arya LM, Usha, Kim R, Lalitha, Prajna, Veena Tandon. Novel Etiological Agent: molecular evidence for trematode-induced anterior uveitis in children. Arch Ophthal. 2012;130:1481-1483.
  28. Subha S, Rathinam SR, Gowri Priya, C, Manjula Sritharan. Serological Diagnosis of Leptospiral Uveitis by HbpA-IgG ELISA. J Med Microbiol.  2012;61:1681-7.
  29. Davis EJ, Rathinam SR, Okada, A A, Tow, S L, Petrushkin, H, Graham, E M, Chee, S P, Guex-Crosier, Y, Jakob, E, Tugal-Tutkun, I, Cunningham, Emmett Jr., Leavitt, J A, Mansour, A M, Winthrop, K L, Hills, W L, Smith, J R. Clinical Spectrum of Tuberculous Optic Neuropathy. J Ophthalmic Inflamm Infect. 2012;2:183-9.
  30. Batmanabane V, Rathinam SR. Steroids in Leptospiral Uveitis: does the route of administration matter. J Pharmacol Pharmacother. 2012;3:58-60.
  31. Vaishnavi B, Gowri Priya, C and Rathinam SR. Spectrum of Leptospira Species Identified in Patients with Leptospiral Uveitis in an Ophthalmological Institute in South India. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2011;29:444-445.
  32. Shukla J, Saxena, D, Rathinam SR, Lalitha, Prajna, Joseph, C R, Sharma, S, Soni, M, Rao, P V, Parida, M. Molecular Detection and Characterization of West Nile Virus Associated with Multifocal Retinitis in Patients from Southern India. Int J Infect Dis. 2012;16:e53-9.
  33. Rathinam SR, Radha Annamala, Biswas, Jyotirmay. Intraocular Parasitic Infections. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2011;19:327-336.
  34. Wender JD, Rathinam SR, Shaw, Richard E, Cunningham, Jr., Emmett T. Intraocular Cysticercosis: case series and comprehensive review of the literature. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2011;19:240-245.
  35. Mohideen Abdul Kader, Ramakrishnan, R, Chandrashekaran, Rathinam SR. Granulomatous Anterior Uveitis and Follicular Conjunctivitis Due to Brimonidine Tartrate. Asian J Ophthalmol. 2010;11:50-52.
  36. Rathinam SR, Cunningham Jr., Emmett T. Spontaneous Hyphaema and Acute Ocular Hypertension Associated with Severe Lens-Induced Uveitis. Eye. 2010;24:1822-1824.
  37. Rathinam SR, Krishnadas, R, Ramakrishnan, R, Thulasiraj, RD, Tielsch, J M, Katz, J, Robin, A L, Kempen, J H, Aravind Comprehensive Eye Survey Research Group. Population-Based Prevalence of Uveitis in Southern India. Br J Ophthalmol. 2011;95:463-7.
  38. Rathinam SR, Ashok, KA. Ocular Manifestations of Systemic Disease: ocular parasitosis. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2010;21:478-484.
  39. Rathinam SR, Cunningham Jr., Emmett T. Vitiligo Iridis in Patients with a History of Smallpox Infection. Eye. 2010;24:1621-1631.
  40. Martin TD, Rathinam SR, Cunningham Jr., Emmett T. Prevalence, Clinical Characteristics, and caouses of Vision Loss in Children with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Disease in South India. Retina. 2010;30:1113-1121.
  41. Tiercy J-M, Rathinam SR, Gex-Fabry, Marianne, Baglivo, Edoardo. A Shared HLA-DRB1 Epitope in the DR Beta First Domain is Associated with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Syndrome in Indian Patients. Mol. Vis. 2010;16:353-358.
  42. Cunningham Jr., Emmett T, London NJS, Rathinam SR. Uveitis: a global view. Expert Rev. Ophthalmol. 2010;5:113-114.
  43. Rathinam SR. Treating Uveitis in the Developing World Setting. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 2010;50:219-228.
  44. London NJS. Shukla, Dhananjay, Heiden, David, Rathinam SR, Arevalo, J Fernando, Cunningham Jr., Emmett T. HIV, AIDS in the Developing World. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 2010;50:201-218.
  45. Shukla Dhananjay, Rathinam SR, Cunningham Jr., Emmett T. Leptospiral Uveitis in the Developing World. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 2010;50:113-124.
  46. Rathinam SR. Leprosy Uveitis in the Developing World. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 2010;50:99-111.
  47. London NJ S, Rathinam SR, Cunningham Jr., Emmett T. The Epidemiology of Uveitis in Developing Countries. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 2010;50:1-17.
  48. Manohar Babu B, Rathinam SR. Intermediate Uveitis. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2010;58:21-27.
  49. Jayakumar D, Kavitha, Sivakumar, Rathinam SR, Vasanthi, Gnanam. Geomapping of Trematode-Induced Granulomatous Anterior Uveitis – a Newly Identified cause of Blindness among Children in the Pudukkottai District of the Tamil Nadu State, India. Geospatial Health.2009;4:55-63.
  50. Khairallah M, Chee, S P, Rathinam SR, Attia, S, Venu Nadella. Novel Infectious Agents causing Uveitis. Int Ophthalmol.  2010;30:465-83.
  51. Roe RH, Rathinam SR, Wong, R W, McDonald, H R, Jumper, JM, Cunningham J., E T. Delayed Fellow Eye Involvement in Patients with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Disease. Br J Ophthalmol. 2009;93:701-702.
  52. Kempen JH, Ganesh, Sudha K, Sangwan, Virender S, Rathinam SR. Interobserver Agreement in Grading Activity and Site of Inflammation in Eyes of Patients with Uveitis. Am. J. Ophthalmol. 2008;146:813-818.
  53. Gowri Priya C, Rathinam SR, Muthukkaruppan, V R. Evidences for Endotoxin as a Causative Factor for Leptospiral Uveitis in Human. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sc. 2008;49:5419-24.
  54. Ashutosh Verma, Rathinam SR, Gowri Priya, C, Muthukkaruppan, V R, Stevenson, Brian, Timoney, John F T. LruA and LruB Antibodies in Sera of Humans with Leptospiral Uveitis. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2008;15:1017-1023.
  55. Rathinam SR, Hadi, M Khazaei. Histopathological Study of Ocular Erythema Nodosum Leprosum and Post-Therapeutic Scleral Perforation: a case Report. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2008;56:417-419.
  56. Arvind V, Rathinam SR. A Pre- And Post-Treatment Evaluation Of Vision-Related Quality Of Life In Uveitis . Indian J Ophthalmol. 2008;56:307-312.
  57. Gowri Priya C, Hoogendijk, K T, Berg, M V D, Rathinam SR, Ahmed, A, Muthukkaruppan, V R, Hartskeeri, R A. Field Rats form a major infection Source of Leptospirosis in and around Madurai. India. J Postgrad Med. 2007;53:236-240.
  58. Carolyn TB, Talbot, Elizabeth A, Rathinam SR, Stevens, Rosaling, Zegans, Micheal E. Diagnosis of Ocular Tuberculosis: a role for New Testing Modalites?. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 2007;47:45-62.
  59. Shukla Dhananjay, Rathinam SR, Cunningham, Emmett T. Contribution of HIV/AIDS to Global Blindness. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 2007;2007:27-43.
  60. Lalitha Prajna, Rathinam SR, Banushree, R, Mahesh Kumar, Vijayakumar, R, Sathe, P. Ocular Involvement Associated with an Epidemic Outbreak of Chikungunya Virus Infection. Am. J. Ophthalmol. 2007;144:552-556.
  61. Rathinam SR, Lalitha, Prajna. Paradoxical Worsening of Ocular Tuberculosis in HIV Patients after Antiretroviral Therapy. Eye. 2007;21:667-668.
  62. Rathinam SR, Namperumalsamy, P. Global Variations and Pattern Changes to Epidemiology of Uveitis. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2007;55:173-184.
  63. Rathinam SR, Lalitha, Prajna. Hypopyon in Leprosy Uveitis. J Postgrad Med. 2007;53:46-47.
  64. Rathinam SR, Rao, Narsing A. Sympathetic Ophthalmia following Postoperative Bacterial Endophthalmitis: a clinicopathologic study. Am. J. Ophthalmol. 2006;141:498-507.
  65. Rathinam SR. Customized LogMAR Charts for Mass Vision-Screening. J Postgrad Med. 2005;51:115.
  66. Rathinam SR. Ocular Manifestations of Leptospirosis. J Postgrad Med. 2005;51:189-194.
  67. Lalitha Prajna, Rathinam SR and Srinivasan, M. Ocular Infections Due to Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria. Indian J Med Microbiol.2004;22:231-237
  68. Rathinam SR, Rao, N A. Tuberculous Intraocular Infection Presenting with Pigmented Hypopyon: a clinicopathological case report. Br J Ophthalmol. 2004;88:721-722.
  69. Gowri Priya C, Bhavani, K, Rathinam SR, Muthukkaruppan, V R. Identification and Evaluation of LPS Antigen for Serodiagnosis of Uveitis Associated with Leptospirosis. J Med Microbiol. 2003;52:667-73.
  70. Rathinam SR. Ocular Leptospirosis. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2002;13:381-386.
  71. Rathinam SR, Lalitha, Prajna, Minu, M Mathen, Prajna, N Venkatesh, Srinivasan, M. Endogenous Nocardial Scleral Abscess: a case report. Asia Pacific J. 2002;14:32-34.
  72. Rathinam SR, Usha, Kim R and Rao, Narsing A. Presumed Trematode-induced Granulomatous Anterior Uveitis: a newly recognized cause of intraocular inflammation in children from South India. Am. J. Ophthalmol. 2002;133:773-779.
  73. Rathinam SR. Ocular Complications of Leptospirosis. Eye Care. 2001;:29-32.
  74. Rathinam SR, Fritche, Thomas R, Srinivasan, M, Vijayalakshmi, P, Read, Russel W, Gautom, Romesh, Namperumalsamy, P, Rao, Narsing A. An Outbreak of Trematode-induced Granulomas of the Conjunctiva. Ophthalmology. 2001;108:1223-1229.
  75. Cunningham, Emmett T, Rathinam SR. TB or not TB: the perennial question. Br J Ophthalmol. 2001;85:127-128.
  76. Rathinam SR, Namperumalsamy, P, Cunningham Jr., Emmett T. Spontaneous Cataract Absorption in Patients with Leptospiral Uveitis. Br J Ophthalmol. 2000;84:1135-1141.
  77. Rathinam SR, Cunningham, Emmett T. Infectious Causes of Uveitis in the Developing World. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 2000;40:137-152.
  78. Rathinam SR, Namperumalsamy, P. Leptospirosis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 1999;7:109-118.
  79. Rathinam SR, Namperumalsamy, P, Nozik, Robert A, Cunningham Jr., Emmett T. Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Syndrome after Cutaneous Injury. Ophthalmology. 1999;106:635-638.
  80. Chu KM, Rathinam SR, Namperumalsamy, P, Dean, Deborah. Identification of Leptospira Species in the Pathogenesis of Uveitis and Determination of Clinical Ocular Characteristics in South India. J Infect Dis. 1998;177:1314-1321.
  81. Rathinam SR, Vijayalakshmi, P, Namperumalsamy, P, Nozik, Robert A, Cunningham Jr., Emmett T. Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Syndrome in Children. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 1998;6:155-161.
  82. Rathinam SR, Namperumalsamy, P, Nozik, Robert A, Cunningham Jr., Emmett T. Angle Closure Glaucoma as a Presenting Sign of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Syndrome. Br J Ophthalmol. 1997;81:608-609.
  83. Rathinam SR, Selvaraj, S, Dean, D, Nozik, R A, Namperumalsamy, P. Uveitis associated with an epidemic outbreak of leptospirosis. Am. J. Ophthalmol. 1997;124:71-79.
  84. Rathinam SR, Ratnam, S, Sureshbabu, L, Natarajaseenivasan, K. Leptospiral Antibodies in Patients with Recurrent Ophthalmic Involvement. Indian J Med Res. 1996;103:66-68.

Dr. Rathinam involved in several National and International Research Studies.

  1. Division of Virology, Defense Research and Development Establishment, (DRDE) Gwalior
    • Molecular diagnosis of West Nile virus infection in Human
  2. Proctor Foundation, San Francisco, USA on:-1997-1998
    • PCR assay of aqueous humor in an epidemic outbreak of leptospirosis in India
  3. Indian Council of Medical Research- 1997-2017
    • Evaluation of PCR and other parameters in diagnosis of tubercular uveitis (1997-98)
    • Value of culture and serology in ophthalmic complication of leptospirosis (2000-2001)
    • Etiology and immunopathogenesis of subconjunctival and anterior chamber granulomatous uveitis in children of South India – Funded by ICMR (2011-2014).
    • Kap Studies On Risk Factors Of Ocular Leptospirosis In South India,(2015-17)
  4. Royal tropical institute Netherland-2001-2002
    • A pilot study to establish the leptospiral etiology of uveitis.
  5. Central university of Hyderabad
    • Study on nature of leptospiral antigen -2009
  6. International Drug trials 2006-2012 (Principal investigator)
  7. University of Shillong
    • Molecular diagnostics in trematode eye disease in children
  1. 2017 Prof. C.S Bhaskaran Oration Award, LVP Eye institute, Bhuvaneswar My Journey in Uveitis
  2. 2014: P.Siva Reddy International Award – Research on novel infectious uveitis etiologies. All India Ophthalmology Society (AIOS) Awards
  3. Elected to the Fellowship of the National Academy of Medical Sciences.(FAMS)
  4. 2001: R.N.Mathur Award – Outstanding service in the field Medical ophthalmology – work done on Ocular Leptospirosis at “All India Ophthalmological Conference”
  5. 2000 & 2014: Recognised as an International Research Associate by Proctor Foundation, Sanfrancisco
  6. 1997: Recognized as Proctor Associate Fellow by Proctor Foundation, Sanfrancisco.
  7. 1997: Bruce Ostler Award – for her work on Ocular leptospirosis from Proctor Foundation, University of California,Sanfrancisco, USA
  8. Best Scientific poster award – First Indian Report on Epidemic Ocular Leptospirosis
  9. University First Rank in Diploma in Ophthalmology